Building systems and their heating, ventilation and air conditioning ow networks, are becoming increasingly complex. Some building energy simulation tools simulate these ow networks using pressure drop equations. These ow network models typically generate coupled algebraic nonlinear systems of equations, which become increasingly more difficult to solve as their sizes increase. This leads to longer computation times and can cause the solver to fail. These problems also arise when using the equation-based modelling language Modelica and Annex 60 based libraries. This may limit the applicability of the library to relatively small problems unless problems are restructured. This paper discusses two algebraic loop types and presents an approach that decouples algebraic loops into smaller parts, or removes them completely. The approach is applied to a case study model where an algebraic loop of 86 iteration variables is decoupled into smaller parts with a maximum of 5 iteration variables.

ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Simulation Speed Analysis and Improvements of Modelica Models for Building Energy Simulation Y1 - 2015 A1 - Filip Jorissen A1 - Michael Wetter A1 - Lieve Helsen AB -This paper presents an approach for speeding up Modelica models. Insight is provided into how Modelica models are solved and what determines the toolâ€™s computational speed. Aspects such as algebraic loops, code efficiency and integrator choice are discussed. This is illustrated using simple building simulation examples and Dymola. The generality of the work is in some cases verified using OpenModelica. Using this approach, a medium sized office building including building envelope, heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and control strategy can be simulated at a speed five hundred times faster than real time.

U2 - LBNL-1002904 ER -